Outcome Data: Four major evaluation studies have been conducted in 1986, 1991, 1997 and 2007 in additional to a wide range of additional evaluations nationally and internationally.
- In 2007, in an urban school district, schools implementing SDM/PS obtained significant results as compared with control schools.
- An increase in student engagement and effort in school.
- Significant decrease in aggressive and delinquent behaviors, as compared with an increase in control schools.
- Increased connectedness and more positive school relationships.
- In 1997, children trained in SDM/PS made substantial gains in interpersonal sensitivity, problem analysis and planning.
- In 1991, a longitudinal study of students exposed to the program in elementary and middle school showed higher levels of positive pro-social behavior and decreased anti-social, self destructive and socially disordered behavior then controls. Controls scored significantly higher in vandalism, physical aggression and more negative self identity and peer acceptance. Across grades male controls showed significantly higher rates of buying alcohol/providing alcohol, girls in control groups used more tobacco.
- In 1986, results showed that students participating were better at coping with stressors and adjusting to middle school then controls.